We also identified 5 nonfoxhounds that had no travel history outside of the US and no known source of vertical transmission

We also identified 5 nonfoxhounds that had no travel history outside of the US and no known source of vertical transmission. immunofluorescent antibody, PCR, or both. Methods Retrospective, descriptive study of was detected in 125 (6.4%) of 1961 dogs tested between 4 January 2006 and 22 May 2019, of which 10 (8%) were foxhounds and 115 (92%) were nonfoxhound breeds. Travel history available for 69 (55%) dogs showed 60 (86.9%) dogs had traveled outside of the US or Canada. Nine (13%) dogs had not traveled outside of the US or Canada, 5 of which were nonfoxhounds. Conclusions and Clinical Importance The majority of cases were detected in nonfoxhounds, many of which had traveled to surveillance should be considered for dogs that return from causes leishmaniosis in dogs and visceral leishmaniasis in humans throughout the world. 1 is usually transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies, where endemicity depends on geographic location, climate, reservoir hosts, and competent vectors. 2 , 3 , 4 Leishmaniosis in dogs caused by has been documented in foxhounds in the United States (US), with the first reported case in Oklahoma in 1980. 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 A serosurvey of has been documented by case reports in nonfoxhounds in the US, 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 but was not definitively identified in nonfoxhounds in 2 US serosurveys. 9 , 14 A recent PCR\based survey conducted over 9?years on hunting hounds reported an average prevalence of 20%, but specific breeds were not specified. 15 Given the lack of known, competent sandfly vectors in the US and evidence supporting vertical transmission in foxhounds, the latter is widely accepted as the only autochthonous method Nalfurafine hydrochloride of transmission within the US, primarily occurring in foxhounds. 16 , 17 Dogs could serve as epidemiological reservoirs for emergence in the US and Canada as climate changes occur and sandfly ranges expand. The South American vector was predicted to migrate north through the US by 2020 based on environmental niche modeling. 18 It is conceivable that sandfly vectors transmitting (also known as via vector native to Central and South America. 20 after exposure to dogs with leishmaniosis, but it is unknown if can transmit to another host. 21 screening is not required for dogs entering the US. 22 Because dogs are routinely imported into the US, consideration should be given to the risk they pose as reservoirs for leishmaniosis. 18 , 23 , 24 , 25 To our knowledge, no surveys have evaluated the number of in the US and Canada, which may not be confined to foxhounds, will inform regulatory agencies and veterinarians of a potentially increasing group of reservoirs. We aimed to describe demographic data and travel history for dogs with positive serology, PCR, or both from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. We hypothesized that would be detected in more foxhounds than nonfoxhounds in the US and Canada, and that by PCR, serology, or both between 4 January 2006 and 22 May 2019. All dogs with 1 positive test results were included in the study and used to report demographics. Thirteen of the 125 positive dogs were tested more than once, but each dog was only counted as 1 dog in the analysis Nalfurafine hydrochloride and considered Nalfurafine hydrochloride either PCR negative, positive, or Nalfurafine hydrochloride not tested, and IFAT negative, positive, or not tested. Dogs negative for or dogs that were reported to be positive for were excluded from analysis because of the potential for cross\reactivity with IFAT. For each dog positive for by PCR or serology, attempts were made to contact the veterinarian on record by email. When email information was not provided, or when the referring veterinarian failed to respond to 2 emails, attempts were made to contact the clinic by phone. Dogs with veterinarians who did not reply to the questionnaire were excluded from analysis of travel history but not the study in general (Figure ?(Figure11). Open in a separate window FIGURE 1 Flowchart outlining inclusion/exclusion criteria for dogs analyzed in this study based on diagnostic testing results and veterinarians’ responses to questionnaire. *All PCR amplicons were sequenced to confirm infection 2.2. Questionnaire and demographic data Data were obtained and reviewed from the VBDDL database. Data included age, breed, and sex as reported by the referring veterinarian, location within the US or Canada, and date of sample submission for each dog. Region Rabbit polyclonal to CDKN2A of sample origin was defined based on.