Lai and coworkers synthesized Fe3O4@SiO2 coreCshell nanoparticles integrated with phosphorescent iridium complexes for three-in-one purposes of MRI, luminescence imaging, and photodynamic therapy 
Lai and coworkers synthesized Fe3O4@SiO2 coreCshell nanoparticles integrated with phosphorescent iridium complexes for three-in-one purposes of MRI, luminescence imaging, and photodynamic therapy . synthesis of magnetite NPs with different sizes, morphologies, and magnetic properties. We also highlight the importance of synthetic factors in controlling the structures and properties of NPs, such as the uniformity of sizes, morphology, surfaces, and magnetic properties. Moreover, emerging applications using Fe3O4 NPs and their functionalized nanostructures are also highlighted Ibodutant (MEN 15596) with a focus on applications in biomedical technologies, biosensing, environmental remedies for water treatment, and energy storage and conversion devices. = 200 (?cm)?1 [27,28]. In contrast, maghemite and hematite are semiconductors with bandgaps of approximately 2.0 eV, which are certainly less conductive than half-metallic materials [15,29]. Other spinel ferrites MFe2O4 are also mostly semiconductors [30,31]. In addition, Fe3O4 possesses the first-order transition of the Verwey transition (metalCinsulator transition) at approximately 115C124 K, while this property is absent in Ibodutant (MEN 15596) maghemite [19,32]. Due to the Verwey transition properties, Fe3O4 is potentially very useful in various physical device applications. Other advantageous properties of Fe3O4 are its high electrochemical activity and high theoretical capacity, which are important for energy storage device applications . In addition to these main properties, the natural abundance, inexpensiveness, and ecofriendliness are additional advantages that allow large-scale applications of Fe3O4-based NPs. Numerous efforts to summarize progress in the synthesis, functionalization, nanoarchitectures, and applications of Fe3O4-based NPs have been reported. Several reviews have highlighted the use of iron oxide NPs (magnetite and maghemite) in biomedical applications [34C36]. The bioinspired synthesis and green biosynthesis of magnetite NPs have been summarized by Mirabello et al.  and Yew et al. . Although the growth mechanism of Fe3O4 nanostructures and their applications were reviewed by Hou and coworkers in 2011 , numerous advances in the field have been achieved in the last 10 years. Other reviews have focused on special physical properties or effects, such as the Verwey transition  and exchange bias effects , which provide opportunities to integrate Fe3O4 NPs in electronic devices and physical instruments. Recently, Siregar et al. highlighted the use of Fe3O4 nanostructures in pollutant gas sensor systems , and Liu et al. reviewed synthetic methods and applications of Fe3O4 in multiple fields . Despite the numerous available reviews, a comprehensive review focusing on the relationship of sizes and shapes (geometries) with the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 NPs, synthetic methods targeting each specific size and shape of Fe3O4 NPs, and preparations of Ibodutant (MEN 15596) appropriate nanoparticle systems for targeted applications is still needed [40C44]. We envision that the size-property and geometry-property relationships are very important factors contributing to the performance of Fe3O4 NPs in most applications. Therefore, this review will focus on the following problems: Synthetic methods to control the structures of Fe3O4 NPs with a focus on the sizes and geometries; Size- and geometry-to-magnetic property relationships of Fe3O4 NPs; Effects of size, geometries, and properties of NPs on target applications; Roles of functionalization and nanoarchitectures of Fe3O4 NPs Rabbit Polyclonal to TISB in target applications. We elucidate the solutions to these problems by first summarizing synthetic methods to obtain different nanostructures of Fe3O4 and their magnetic properties. In particular, the syntheses of various sizes of spherical, cubic, nanorod, 2D nanoplate (hexagonal and triangular shapes), hollow, and multipod nanocrystal Fe3O4 NPs are summarized together with their magnetic properties, including saturation magnetization and coercivity. In this section, synthetic strategies to tailor the size and morphology of NPs are mainly discussed. Next, we discuss the need to combine various characterization techniques to study Fe3O4 NPs. Then, we will highlight the use of Fe3O4-based NPs in emerging applications, such as biomedical applications (hyperthermia, MRI contrast agents, and drug delivery), biosensing, environmental applications for the removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and applications in energy storage devices. In this section, we will focus on the.